Download here 📃
Plain text here, searchable on the site as well:
|45° (Forty five degrees)||45°||This refers to the preferred angle of the referees’ stance, especially in Lead and Trail positions and in some cases by Centre as well. Referees in L and T position will normally face the basket and maintain a 45° angle in order to keep in the field of vision as many players as possible. The Centre referee’s basic stance is generally flat with his/her back to the sideline, but Centre will normally adjust position to approximately 45° during weak side drives.|
|Act of Shooting||AOS||The act of shooting on a shot:|
• Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.
• Ends when the ball has left the player’s hand(s), or if an entirely new act of shooting is made and, in case of an airborne shooter, both feet have returned to the floor.
The act of shooting in a continuous movement on drives to the basket or other moving shots:
• Begins when the ball has come to rest in the player’s hand(s), upon completion of a dribble or a catch in the air and the player starts, in the judgment of the referee, the shooting motion preceding the release of the ball for a field goal.
• Ends when the ball has left the player’s hand(s), or if an entirely new act of shooting is made and, in case of an airborne shooter, both feet have returned to the floor.
|Action Area||AA||Action Area may involve players with or without the ball. Knowledge on various play situations (pick & roll, screening, post-ups, rebounding) will help referees identify Action Areas in their primary, or when extending or expanding coverage.|
|Active Mindset||AMI||Refereeing is nothing but being ready. Good referees are constantly analysing the movements and actions of the players in order to be in position to see something illegal. Look for reasons to call (illegal).|
|Active Referee||AR||The referee who hands the ball to a free throw shooter or player for a throw-in, or to administer the jump ball to start the game.|
|Alternating Possession||AP||Alternating possession is a method of causing the ball to become live with a throw-in rather than a jump ball.|
|Alternating Possession Arrow||APA||The team entitled to the alternating possession throw-in shall be indicated by the alternating possession arrow in the direction of the opponents’ basket. The direction of the alternating possession arrow will be reversed immediately when the alternating possession throw-in ends.|
|Angle(s)||n/a||Working the angles; that is attempting to maintain a line of vision where the referee can see between players in order to keep vision on the areas of greatest potential contact.|
|Anticipate (call)||AC||Describes the situation when a referee anticipates that a certain event will occur and blows the whistle before actually seeing and reflecting on the event. Usually, this refers to the case when the referee makes a mistake because what they anticipated did not, in actuality, occur.|
|Anticipate (play)||APL||Describes the situation when a referee is able to read the play and anticipate the next moves to come and is able to adjust position/ angle properly in advance of covering the upcoming play.|
|Assistant Scorer||ASC||The assistant scorer shall operate the scoreboard and assist the scorer. In the case of any discrepancy between the scoreboard and the scoresheet which cannot be resolved, the scoresheet shall take precedence and the scoreboard shall be corrected accordingly.|
|At the Disposal (Ball)||BATD||When a referee hands the ball to a player making a throw-in or shooting a free throw or the referee is placing the ball at the disposal of the player.|
|Authorised Signals||n/a||Authorised Signals: Those signals made by the referee for official communication to players or the bench as outlined by the FIBA Basketball Rules:|
|Backboard||BB||The wood or glass rectangle on which the ring is suspended. The official size is 1.8m wide and 1.05m high. The ring is centred on the “board” 15cm from the base on the board.|
|Backcourt||BC||A team’s backcourt consists of its team’s own basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that part of the playing court limited by the endline behind their own basket, the sidelines and the centre line.|
|Backcourt Violation||BCV||Where an offensive player with the ball in their frontcourt causes the ball to go into the backcourt where it is first touched by them or a teammate. Also called an “over and back” violation.|
|Ball Side||BS||This refers to the position of the ball. When the playing court is divided by an imaginary line extending from basket to basket, the side of the playing court on which the ball is located is called the “ball-side”.|
|Basket interference||BI||Basket interference occurs when:|
• After a shot for a field goal or the last or only free throw a player touches the basket or the backboard while the ball is in contact with the ring.
• After a free throw followed by an additional free throw(s), a player touches the ball, the basket or the backboard while there is still a possibility that the ball will enter the basket.
• A player reaches through the basket from below and touches the ball.
• A defensive player touches the ball or the basket while the ball is within the basket, thus preventing the ball from passing through the basket.
• A player causes the basket to vibrate or grasps the basket in such a way that, in the judgement of a referee, the ball has been prevented from entering the basket or has been caused to enter the basket.
• A player grasps the basket to play the ball.
|Bench Control||n/a||Referees ensuring that the players and coaches sitting on the bench do not violate the rules of sportsmanship.|
|Blocking||BL||Blocking is illegal personal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent with or without the ball.|
|Bonus||n/a||When two free throws are granted to a player when he/she has been fouled and their opponent’s team has reached the limit of four team fouls in a quarter.|
|Boundary Lines||n/a||The playing court shall be limited by the boundary lines, consisting of the endlines and the sidelines. These lines are not part of the playing court.|
|Buzzer||n/a||Signal from the scorer’s table used to indicate substitutions, time outs, disqualifications and end of quarters, or may be used by table officials to summon a referee to confer in the case of a misunderstood ruling.|
|Cancel the Score (basket)||n/a||A referee signals that a basket which has been made is to be discounted i.e. when a player charges when shooting with contact occurring before the ball leaves the shooters hands – the referee cancels the score indicating to the scorer’s table that the basket does not count.|
|Captain||CAP||The captain (CAP) is a player designated by team´s head coach to represent the team on the playing court. The captain may communicate in a courteous manner with the referees during the game to obtain information, however, only when the ball becomes dead and the game clock is stopped.|
|Centre (Referee)||C||The Centre referee (3PO) is the official who is positioned on the opposite side of the frontcourt from the Lead (usually opposite side of the ball) at the free-throw line extended (set-up position). Depending on the location of the ball, Centre may be on either side of the frontcourt.|
|Centre Line||n/a||The line designating the halfway mark of the court.|
|Charge (Charging)||CH||Charging is illegal personal contact, with or without the ball, by pushing or moving into an opponent’s torso.|
|Close Down||CD||The position of the Lead where he should move before actual rotation starts.|
|Closed Angle||CA||A stacked or straight-lined view of the action area in a referee’s primary / secondary coverage area.|
|Commissioner||COM||The commissioner shall sit between the scorer and the timer. Commissioners primary duty during the game is to supervise the work of the table officials and to assist the crew chief and umpire(s) in the smooth functioning of the game.|
|Consistency||n/a||A referee who interprets play situations and criteria exactly the same way throughout is said to be consistent.|
|Contact Foul||n/a||A personal foul resulting from a player illegally touching another player and putting him at a disadvantage.|
|Control of the Ball||COB||A team is said to be in control of the ball when a player of that team first has the ball in their possession inbounds or when the ball is placed at their disposal for a throw-in. It extends until the time a shot is taken, a whistle blows, or a player from the opposition side gains control. A player is in control of the ball when they are holding a live ball in their hands or dribbling it, or when the ball is at their disposal for a throw-in or a free throw.|
|Correctable Errors||CE||Referees may correct an error if a rule is inadvertently disregarded in the following situations only:|
• Awarding an unmerited free throw(s).
• Failure to award a merited free throw(s).
• Erroneous awarding or cancelling of a point(s).
• Permitting the wrong player to attempt a free throw(s).
|Coverage||CG||The vision on the game of the two/three referees; good coverage means that the referees between them have all players in sight both on and off the ball.|
|Crew Chief||CC, XC||The Crew Chief (CC) is generally the more senior and/or experienced of the two/three referees. The crew chief’s duties are the same as the umpire(s) except that the crew chief:|
1. Initiates the start of the game and of each quarter.
2. Inspects and approves all equipment to be used in the game
3. Has the power to make the final decision on any point not specifically covered in the rules.
|Cross Step||CS, XS||When play starts to progress in one direction and designated referee takes steps in the opposite direction. This adjustment can be done in all positions as Lead, Trail & Centre.|
|Cylinder (Principle)||CP||The imaginary vertical extension of a player. Players are entitled to occupy a spot on the floor and also the cylinder above them (i.e. they can jump straight up without giving up position).|
|Cylinder (Verticality)||CP, VER|
|Dead Ball||DB||The ball becomes dead when:|
1. Any field goal or free throw is made.
2. A referee blows the whistle while the ball is live.
3. It is apparent that the ball will not enter the basket on a free throw which is to be followed by:
3.1. Another free throw(s).
3.2. A further penalty (free throw(s) and/or possession).
4. The game clock signal sounds for the end of the quarter.
5. The shot clock signal sounds while a team is in control of the ball.
|Dead Ball Officiating||DBO||Refers to any actions that take place after the referee makes the call and the ball becomes live again. Dead-ball officiating is primarily proactive and requires that the (two) other passive referee(s) become active during the dead ball period.|
|Disqualification||DQ||A disqualifying foul is any flagrant unsportsmanlike action by a player or team bench personnel.|
|Double Dribble||DD, IDR||An illegal dribble when a player discontinues the dribble action by allowing the ball to touch both hands on a dribble or allowing the ball to come to rest in one hand and then proceeds to dribble again.|
|Double Foul||DOF||A double foul is a situation in which 2 opponents commit personal or unsportsmanlike/disqualifying fouls on each other at approximately the same time.|
To consider 2 fouls as a double foul the following conditions must apply:
• Both fouls are player fouls.
• Both fouls involve physical contact.
• Both fouls are between the same 2 opponents fouling each other.
• Both fouls are either 2 personal or any combination of unsportsmanlike and disqualifying fouls.
|Double Whistle||DW-3W||When two referees simultaneously blow their whistles.|
|Dribble||DR||A dribble is the movement of a live ball caused by a player in control of that ball who throws, taps, rolls the ball on the floor.|
|Dual Coverage||DUCE||Area of responsibility and actions that two referees have overlapping primary responsibilities on the same area or play.|
|Edge of the Play||EPL||In Lead position it is crucial to adjust your positioning with the ball and to be in line with outside players in order to maintain the players in the field of vision and open look. When on the edge of the play, a referee is normally able to see more players and anticipate better next play situations to come. This position is linked with the term “45° angle”.|
|Eight (8) Seconds Violation||8S||When a team gains new possession of the ball in their backcourt it has eight seconds to advance the ball over the centre line.|
|Ejection||n/a||When a referee orders a player off the court for a disqualifying foul or for a second technical or unsportsmanlike foul on the same player.|
|Elbowing||ELW||Any hit or contact made with the elbow that imply a foul. Also – An action of excessive swinging of elbows by and offensive player with the ball (without contact).|
|End Of the Game||EOG||End of the Game|
|End Of the Quarter EOQ||EOQ||End of the Quarter|
|Endline (Baseline)||n/a||The boundary lines marking both ends of the playing area. The line itself is considered to be out-of-bounds. In US basketball, they use the “baseline” term|
|Extended Coverage||EXCE||At the highest level of officiating, a referee has to be able to extend coverage on two different play situations at the same time|
|Fake (Basketball)||n/a||Normally an offensive manoeuvre when an offensive player fakes motion in one direction to draw a defensive player that way and then attempts to move past the defence in the other direction.|
|Fake (Refereeing)||FK||Fake (Refereeing) is any action where a player pretends being fouled or makes theatrical exaggerated movements in order to create an opinion of being fouled and therefore gaining an unfair advantage. Examples of faking are: falling backwards, falling down, moving the head backwards, etc. simulating contact by an opponent without actually being touched, or being contacted only in a marginal way (see “Flop”).|
|Fantasy Call (Phantom Call)||FAC||Describes the situation when a referee makes a call for foul and actually there was not even contact on the play (problem with self- discipline / “I don’t see, I don’t call”). This is different than Marginal Contact that is incorrectly called as a foul (problem with criteria).|
|Fast Break||FB||A quick change of the direction of the ball as the defensive team gains possession of the ball through a steal, rebound, violation or made shot and quickly attacks to the other end of the court hoping to gain numerical or positional advantage over the other team and a resultant high percentage shot.|
|Feel for the Game||n/a||The referee’s ability to be sense what’s going on the court: are tempers getting high; is the pace fast; is there too much contact occurring, etc.? A referee with a good feel for the game is in the best position to maintain game control.|
|Fighting||FGT||Fighting is physical interaction between 2 or more opponents (players and/or team bench personnel).|
|Five (5) Fouls||5F||A player who has committed 5 fouls shall be informed by a referee and must leave the game immediately and must be substituted within 30 seconds.|
|Five (5) Seconds Violation||5S||Once a player has the ball at disposal for a throw-in or a free throw, he/she has five seconds to release the ball. Also when a closely guarded player is in control of the ball, he/she has five seconds to pass, shoot or dribble – not to do so is a violation. A closely guarded player who is dribbling is not subject to a five second count.|
|Flagrant Foul||FF||May be a personal or technical foul. It is always unsportsmanlike and may or may not be intentional. If personal, it involves violent or savage contact, such as striking with the fist or elbow, kicking, kneeing, or running under a player who is in the air, or crouching or hipping in a manner which might cause severe injury to an opponent. If it is a non-contact foul, it involves extreme and sometimes persistent vulgar and/or abusive conduct.|
|Flop (Refereeing)||FL / FLOP||Any fake, pretend, or exaggerated action by a player with/without the ball – e.g. falling backwards, falling down, throwing the head, etc. – simulating contact by an opponent in an unnatural manner without actually being touched, or being contacted in only a marginal way.|
|Foot (Kick) Violation||FVI||A player shall not run with the ball, deliberately kick or block it with any part of the leg or strike it with the fist. However, to accidentally come into contact with or touch the ball with any part of the leg is not a violation. (Deliberate Foot Ball)|
|Foul||n/a||A foul is an infraction of the rules concerning illegal personal contact with an opponent and/or unsportsmanlike behaviour.|
|Foul Lane||n/a||The restricted area at both ends of the court circumscribed by the foul line, foul lanes and baselines. Also called the “key” or “paint”.|
|Foul not in Act of shooting||FNAOS||When a player is illegally contacted by the defence and foul is called, but not AOS (also term “Foul on floor”).|
|Foul, Fake, Floor, Foot||4F|
|Fouled in Act of Shooting (AOS)||FAOS||When a player is illegally contacted by the defence when attempting a shot or during the contious motion.|
|Free Throw Line Extended||FTEX||This imaginary line represents the extension of the free throw line across the width of the court. Most coaches use it to establish defensive coaching guidelines. When the ball is above the free throw line extended a certain guideline applies. When the ball is below it another guideline applies. It is also used as a reference for offensive player alignment. FTEX is also a set-up (basic) position for the Centre on the court.|
|Free Throw Violation||FTV|
|Free Throw(s)||FT||A free throw is an opportunity given to a player to score 1 point, uncontested, from a position behind the free-throw line and inside the semi-circle.|
|Freedom of Movement||FOM||A cardinal term also in the rules denoting the ability of a player to move from one spot on the court to another without being unduly hindered. If contact caused by a player in any way restricts the freedom of movement of an opponent, such a contact is a foul.|
|Freeze||n/a||In the case of simultaneous whistles, the referee who feels he/she is in the least advantageous position to make the call (usually the referee furthest away from the incident) should remain stationary momentarily (freeze) in order to let his/her partner move toward the incident and begin administering the situation.|
|Frontcourt||FC||A team’s frontcourt consists of the opponents’ basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that part of the playing court limited by the endline behind the opponents’ basket, the sidelines and the inner edge of the centre line nearest to the opponents’ basket.|
|Game Control||GC||A referee is said to be in control of a game when the game is operating smoothly under the rules as intended and, as well as, the rules of sportsmanship being rigidly but fairly enforced. This is different than Game Management.|
|Game Flow||GF||The speed or tempo at which the game is being played. This is determined by the two contesting teams and the referees should attempt as much as possible not to interrupt this flow.|
|Game Saver||GS||An important and correct decision made by a referee irrespective to his/her position or area of responsibility at the end of a game that is crucial to protecting the game’s integrity (literally “saves the game”), and if otherwise not made, could create a situation whereby the team that deserves to win the game, may not.|
|Giving Help||GH||Referee who offers assistance outside his/her primary and makes a correct call after allowing his/her partner to make the call in his/her primary.|
|Goal (field goal)||FG||A goal is made when a live ball enters the basket from above and remains within or passes through the basket. The ball is considered to be within the basket when the slightest part of the ball is within and below the level of the ring.|
|Goaltending||GT||Goaltending occurs during a shot for a field goal when a player touches the ball while it is completely above the level of the ring and:|
• It is on its downward flight to the basket, or
• After it has touched the backboard.
|Hand Checking||HC||Hand Checking / Illegal use of the hand(s) or extended arm(s) occurs when the defensive player is in a guarding position and his/her hand(s) or arm(s) is placed upon and remains in contact with an opponent with or without the ball, to impede opponent´s progress.|
|Held Ball||HB||A held ball occurs when one or more players from opposing teams have one or both hands firmly on the ball so that neither player can gain control without undue roughness.|
|Help Side||HSB||The half of the front court opposite to where the ball is located (taken from an imaginary line extending from the ring, through the top of the key to the centre jump circle).|
|Holding||HOL||Holding is illegal personal contact with an opponent that interferes with opponent´s freedom of movement. This contact (holding) can occur with any part of the body.|
|Hooking||HOK||When an offensive player “hooks” or wraps an arm or an elbow around a defensive player in order to prevent the defender from playing legal defence.|
|Illegal Dribble||IDR||A violation made by the dribbler either carrying the ball or making a double dribble.|
|Illegal Use of Hands||IUH||Illegally using the hands to impede the progress of an opposition player. Normally this foul is made on a dribbler and entails the defence hacking the arms of the dribbler in an attempt to bat the ball away.|
|Image of the Referee||IOR||How the referee is perceived by others. For example, if the referee is sloppy looking, the image they create may bias players and coaches to expect they will referee sloppily. A top referee’s image is “Strong, Decisive & Approachable”.|
|Immediate, Cadence, Patient, Quick whistle||IW, CW, PW, QW|
|Individual Officiating Techniques||IOT||The technical aspects of individual refereeing how to referee the play using proper techniques such as Distance & Stationary, Refereeing the Defence, Active Mindset, “Staying with the play”, Adjustment to maintain Open Angle, etc.|
|Infraction||n/a||Literally any infraction is a contravention of the rules. e.g. fouls (technical and contact) and violations. However, normally infractions refer to just violations (i.e. three seconds, travelling etc.).|
|Inside-Out (Angle)||IN-O||This generally refers to the Lead referee who may not be on the edge of the play and instead is looking from the Inside-Out, instead of refereeing at a 45 degree angle with as many players as possible within the field of vision.|
|Instant Replay System||IRS||Refers to a video replay system what is possible to use in designated play situations. The IRS review will be conducted by the referees. If the call and the decision of the referees is subject to the IRS review, that initial decision must be shown by the referees on the playing court. Following the IRS review the initial decision of the referee(s) can be corrected only if the IRS review provides the referees with clear and conclusive visual evidence for the correction.|
|Interpretation of the Rules||n/a||Good refereeing requires that a referee does not apply the rules literally (i.e. contact is not allowed), but rather, judges each situation in regards to its effect on the play, i.e. interpreting the rules by their spirit and intention.|
|Interval (of Play)||IOP||There shall be an interval of play of 20 minutes before the game is scheduled to begin.|
There shall be intervals of play of 2 minutes between the first and second quarter (first half), between the third and fourth quarter (second half) and before each overtime.
There shall be a half-time interval of play of 15 minutes. During an interval of play, all team members entitled to play are considered as players.
|Jab (hand- checking)||JAB||To repeatedly touch or ‘jab’ an opponent with or without the ball is a foul, as it may lead to rough play.|
|Judgement||n/a||The ability of a referee to look at each situation as it arises and make a decision based on its effect or non-effect on play and to act accordingly.|
|Jump Ball – situation||JB|
|Jump Ball (Situation)||JB||A jump ball occurs when a referee tosses the ball in the centre circle between any 2 opponents at the beginning of the first quarter. Can also refer to a “jump ball situation.”|
|Last 2 minutes of the game||L2M||Refers to the last 2 minutes of the fourth quarter and overtime.|
|Last Shot||LS||Refers to the play when team has a new control of the ball and the game clock shows 24.0 seconds or less, meaning it is possible that the quarter will end with that team possession.|
|Lead (Referee)||L||The Lead (2PO/3PO) is the referee who leads the play up the court and whose responsibility includes coverage along the endline at the attacking end of the court.|
|Legal Guarding Position||LGP||A defensive player has established an initial legal guarding position when:|
• player is facing his/her opponent, and
• player has both feet on the floor.
|Line Up||n/a||During a foul shot players “line up” on either side of the foul lane.|
|Live Ball||LB||The ball becomes live when:|
1. During the jump ball, the ball leaves the hand(s) of the referee on the toss.
2. During a free throw, the ball is at the disposal of the free-throw shooter.
3. During a throw-in, the ball is at the disposal of the player taking the throw-in.
|Loose Ball||LOB||When a live ball is not in possession of a player but is rolling or bouncing on the floor as players from both sides seek to gain control or as in a rebounding situation. Team control does not change until the opposition gains control, meaning for example, a shot clock violation can occur while the ball is loose.|
|Manufactured (Shot)||MS||Anytime that a player who is not in act of shooting when illegal contact occurs, but after the contact starts an AOS movement hoping to have free throws awarded.|
|Marginal Contact||MC||Although basketball is a non-contact sport it is virtually impossible for players to move around the court without contacting each other. If the contact is seen to affect the play, then a foul should be called. Other contact which has no effect on the play is deemed marginal and can be ignored.|
|Mechanics||MEC||The technical aspects of refereeing i.e. how referees move, coverage, signals, administration of free throws, jump ball situations, throw-ins, etc…|
|Media Time-Out(s)||MTO||The organising body of the competition may decide for itself whether media time- outs shall be applied and, if so, of what duration (e.g. 60, 75, 90 or 100 seconds).|
|No-Call||NC||Some of the best decisions a referee may make involve in refraining from blowing the whistle, when he/she judges a potential foul or violation does not contravene the spirit and intent of the rules.|
|Non-Active Referee||NAR||The referee who is not administrating free throw or a throw-in, or to not tossing the ball during the jump ball in the start of the game.|
|Obvious Play||OP||Plays that are clearly visible to most of the participants in the game, including referees, coaches, players and spectators. Referees must be correct in these type of situations 100% of the time with no room for error.|
|Off the Ball||OFB||Concerns all aspects of play not directly involving the player with the ball and players closely adjacent to them.|
|Offensive End||n/a||The end of the court to which a team attacks and attempts to score a basket (their front court).|
|Offensive Foul (Blocking-Charge)||OFF (BL-CH)|
|Official Basketball Rules Interpretations||OBRI||A document that FIBA publishes, which includes all official interpretations defined by FIBA|
|Open Angle||OA||Clear view of the action in a referee’s primary / secondary coverage area. Never leave an open look.|
|Opposite Side||OPS||This refers to the side of the playing court which is furthest away from the scorer’s table.|
|Out-of-Bounds||OOB||That area outside of the playing court – radiating out from and including the boundary lines of the court.|
|Outside-In (Angle)||O-IN||The preferred position of the Lead referee who is standing at a 45 degree angle and has as many players as possible within the field of vision.|
|Palming (the ball)||PLM||See: carrying the ball.|
|Pass||n/a||A method of moving the ball by throwing it from one offensive player to another.|
|Pass-Off||POFF||A situation where a player has started the AOS and a foul is called, but does not continue shooting motion and ends up passing to a teammate. This is considered a personal foul and not AOS foul.|
|Patienced Whistle||PW||When referee is capable to process the entire play (start/middle/end) before making a call.|
|Peripheral Vision||PV||To see widely to either side while looking straight ahead.|
|Personal Foul||PF||A personal foul is a player’s illegal contact with an opponent, whether the ball is live or dead.|
|Phantom Call (Fantasy Call)||FAC||Describes the situation when a referee makes a call for foul and actually there was not even contact on the play (problem with self- discipline / “I don’t see, I don’t call”). This is different than Marginal Contact that is incorrectly called as a foul (problem with criteria).|
|Pick||SC||An offensive screen.|
|Pivot Foot||n/a||When a player is in possession of the ball and is not dribbling he/she is allowed to rotate around one foot providing that this foot remains on the same spot on the floor – thus a pivot foot.|
|Player||n/a||During playing time, a team member is a player when he/she is on the playing court and is entitled to play.|
|Pre-Game Conference||PGC||Before the start of important contests it is necessary for the referees to meet together to familiarise themselves and talk about their working mechanics and preparations for the game.|
|Pre-Game Routines||n/a||The routine the referees go through prior to the actual commencement of the game. This includes checking the scoresheet, making sure the timer understands the timing regulations of that particular contest, etc.|
|Preventative Officiating||PRO||Refers to actions by referees who prevent problems from occurring by communicating with players and/or coaches. It can happen during live ball (post, perimeter play) as well as during dead ball.|
|Primary (Coverage)||PCE||Area of responsibility and actions that referee has to be able to cover always.|
|Pushing||PU, BUMP||Pushing is illegal personal contact with any part of the body where a player forcibly moves or attempts to move an opponent with or without the ball.|
|Push-Off||PO||When an offensive player ‘pushes off’ to prevent the defensive player from playing or attempting to play the ball, or to create more space for himself.|
|Quick Whistle||QW||When referee is not capable to process the entire play before making a call. Sometimes quick whistles lead to unnecessary calls.|
|Rebound||RB||On a missed shot, the resultant contest between the two teams to gain possession of the ball is known as rebounding (the ball rebounds off the ring or backboard). Thus, to get a rebound means to secure the ball after a missed shot.|
|Rectangle||RC||Refers to the frontcourt, which has been divided into 6 parts for the purpose of defining areas of responsibility.|
|Ref||n/a||Short for referee|
|Referee||REF||Generally, the term used for two/three referees working a game.|
|Referee Instructor||RI||The referee instructor is a person who has good knowledge in teaching & learning, basketball and refereeing. FIBA has certified and trained Referee Instructors.|
|Referee Trail, Ref. Lead, Ref. Centre||RT, RL, RC|
|Refereeing Defence||RD||The priority when refereeing on ball is to focus the attention on the illegality of the defensive player while keeping the offensive player with the ball in your field of vision|
|Referees||n/a||The referees shall be a crew chief and 1 or 2 umpire(s). They shall be assisted by the table officials and by a commissioner, if present.|
|Regular call||RC||Considered to be normal call by designated referee (no assistance)|
|Ring||n/a||The metal circumference of the basket or hoop the ball must pass through in order to record a score.|
|Rotation||ROT||This refers to a situation when the movement/location of the ball causes the Lead to initiate a change of position or “rotation” to the ball side in the frontcourt. The trigger for Lead to rotate is when ball moves to Centre side (weak side) and stay there. A change in position by Lead affects changes in position by Centre (to Trail) and Trail (to Centre).|
|Scan (the Paint)||SPA||When Lead rotates on the baseline, he needs to scan the paint for illegal off-ball activities or if no players, next action area.|
|Score||FG||To make a basket or free throw. It can also refer to the point totals of both teams – as in the score of the game was 50 to 47.|
|Scorer||SR||The scorer shall keep a record of the scoresheet according to the basketball rules.|
|Scoresheet||SS||The official record of the game details, which is kept throughout the game. The scoresheet records a running tally of the team and individual scores and fouls.|
|Screening||SC||Screening is an attempt to delay or prevent an opponent without the ball from reaching a desired position on the playing court.|
|Secondary (Coverage)||SCE||Area of responsibility and actions that referee is able to cover after ensuring that primary coverage is covered.|
|Self-Evaluation||SEF||The process of evaluation of one’s own performance.|
|Selling the Call||STC||Placing emphasis on a call with louder voice and whistle and slightly more demonstrative signals. It should happen only in close calls in order to help the call gain acceptance.|
|Semi-Circle (No- Charge)||NCSC||The no-charge semi-circle areas are drawn on the playing court for the purpose of designating a specific area for the interpretation of charge/block situations under the basket. The no-charge semi-circle lines are part of the no-charge semi-circle areas.|
|Shot||n/a||An attempt at the basket.|
|Shot Clock Operator||SCO||The shot clock operator shall be controlling the shot clock according to the basketball rules.|
|Shot Clock Violation||SCV||Once a team has gained possession of the live ball on the court it is required to attempt a shot within 24/14 seconds. Not to do so is a violation.|
|Sidelines||n/a||The boundary lines inscribing a side of the playing court area.|
|Signals||n/a||The official communications as described in the rulebook by which the referees explain their decisions to the players and scorer’s table.|
|Signals (communication among the crew)||n/a||Subtle gesturers made by one referee to the other to help with game maintenance and teamwork – such as enquiring of the other referee if they saw who last touched the ball before it went out of bounds. Each crew may have their own way of communicate internally.|
|Special Situations||SPS||In the same stopped-clock period that follows an infraction, special situations may arise when additional foul(s) are committed.|
|Spirit and Intent of the Rules||n/a||The rules were not written to be interpreted literally, but rather, to stop players from gaining an advantage by using illegal methods. Thus, not all contact is a foul – only contact which causes a player to be disadvantaged by the initiator of that contact. Thus, each incident needs to be judged by the effect it has on the game and not in complete isolation. A flexible interpretation of the rules is what is necessary; calling the game by the “spirit and intent” of the rules.|
|Starting Five||SF||The head coach shall indicate at least 10 minutes before the game the 5 players who are to start the game.|
|Stay with the Play||SWP||Refers to IOT that referee will not take his/her eyes and concentration off the play before it has ended.|
|Strong Side (Refereeing/3PO)||SSR||Side of the court where the Lead & Trail referees are located (3PO).|
|Substitution / Substitute||SUB||During playing time, a team member is a substitute when he/she is not on the playing court but is entitled to play.|
|Substitution Opportunity||SUBO||A substitution opportunity begins when:|
• For both teams, the ball becomes dead, the game clock is stopped and the referee has ended the communication with the scorer’s table.
• For both teams, the ball becomes dead following a successful last or only free throw.
• For the non-scoring team, a field goal is scored when the game clock shows 2:00 minutes or less in the fourth quarter and in each overtime.
A substitution opportunity ends when the ball is at the disposal of a player for a throw-in or a first or only free throw.
|Switching (Referees)||SW||Refers to switching the positions (roles) of the Lead, Trail and Centre after reporting the foul to the Scorer’s Table. The switch normally involves the calling referee moving to a new position on the court.|
|Table Officials||TBO||The table officials shall be a scorer, an assistant scorer, a timer and a shot clock operator.|
|Table side||TS||This refers to the side of the playing court which is closest to the scorer’s table.|
|Tap||n/a||A tap is when the ball is directed with the hand(s) towards the opponents’ basket.|
|Team / Team Member||TM||Each team shall consist of:|
• No more than 12 team members entitled to play, including a captain.
• A head coach and, if a team wishes, a first assistant coach.
• A maximum of 7 accompanying delegation members who may sit on the team bench and have special responsibilities, e.g. manager, doctor, physiotherapist, statistician, interpreter, etc.
|Team Bench Areas||TBA||The team bench areas shall be marked outside the playing court limited by 2 lines. There must be 16 seats available in the team bench area for the team bench personnel which consists of the head coach, the first assistant coach, the substitutes, the excluded players and the team followers. Any other persons shall be at least 2 m behind the team bench.|
|Team Control (Ball)||TC||Team control starts when a player of that team is in control of a live ball by holding or dribbling it or team has a live ball at their disposal.|
Team control continues when:
1. A player of that team is in control of a live ball.
2. The ball is being passed between team-mates.
Team control ends when:
1. An opponent gains control.
2. The ball becomes dead.
3. The ball has left the player’s hand(s) on a shot for a field goal or for a free throw.
|Team Control Foul||TCF||An offensive foul. A foul made by a player whose team is in control of the ball at the time.|
|Team Foul(s)||TFO||A team foul is a personal, technical, unsportsmanlike or disqualifying foul committed by a player. A team is in the team foul penalty situation when it has committed 4 team fouls in a quarter.|
|Teamwork||n/a||The smooth functioning of the referee team to provide proper coverage and control to a game.|
|Technical Foul||TF||A foul called on a player, head coach or a substitute or team follower on the bench for unsportsmanlike conduct that involves no contact. (also known as “T”).|
|Tempo||n/a||The speed at which the game is being played: are teams both running up and down the court, fast-breaking and making a lot of mistakes; or, are the teams playing in a deliberate manner in order to make full use of the ball and the shot clock, etc.|
|Three (3) Person Officiating||3PO||An officiating concept where three referees are working in the game. The terms for the 3 referees are Crew Chief (CC), Umpire 1 (U1) and Umpire 2 (U2), and all referees are working during the game in Lead, Trail & Centre positions.|
|Three (3) seconds||3S||A player shall not remain in the opponents’ restricted area for more than 3 consecutive seconds while his/her team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running.|
|Throw-in||T-IN / THIN||A throw-in occurs when the ball is passed into the playing court by the out-of- bounds player taking the throw-in.|
|Time & Distance (Basketball)||T&D||When guarding a player who does not control the ball, the elements of time and distance shall apply. A defensive player cannot take a position so near and/or so quickly in the path of a moving opponent that the latter does not have sufficient time or distance either to stop or change his/her direction. The distance is directly proportional to the speed of the opponent, but never less than 1 normal step.|
|Time-Out (Referees)||RTO||Referees may also call an official time-out when a player has been injured or if they wish to confer with each other, a player, the scorer’s table, or team bench.|
|Time-Out (Team)||TO||A time-out is a one minute break in play where the coach may address their team. Teams may call two time-outs at any time in the first half, three during the second half and 1 per each overtime.|
|Time-Out Opportunity||TOO||A time-out opportunity begins when:|
• For both teams, the ball becomes dead, the game clock is stopped and the referee has ended the communication with the scorer’s table.
• For both teams, the ball becomes dead following a successful last or only free throw.
• For the non-scoring team, a field goal is scored.
• A time-out opportunity ends when the ball is at the disposal of a player for a throw- in or for a first or only free throw.
|Timer||TR||The timer shall measure playing time, time-outs and an interval of play according the Rules of Basketball.|
|Trail (Referee)||T||Under the dual referee system one referee always leads the play down to the end of the court and the other referee remains close to by slightly behind the play in order to maintain the sandwich principle. It is always the trail referee’s responsibility to detect basket interference and to notice whether a shot has gone in or not.|
|Travelling Violation||TV / TRAV||When a player with the ball lifts or moves the pivot foot from its spot on the floor before releasing the ball from the hands for a dribble, or takes too many steps after picking up the ball when stopping, passing or shooting. It is not possible to travel while dribbling the ball. During a dribble, there is no limit to the number of steps a player may take when the ball is not in contact with the hands.|
|Triple Whistle||3W||When three referees simultaneously blow their whistles on a same play.|
|Turnover||TOR||When the offensive team loses possession of the ball other than from a missed or made shot; i.e. an interception, violation or offensive foul.|
|Two (2) Person Officiating||2PO||A officiating concept where two referees are working in the game. The referees are Crew Chief and Umpire and they are working during the game in Lead and Trail position.|
|Umpire (U1, U2)||U||Under 2PO, one referee is designated the crew chief and the other the umpire. The umpire is normally the younger and/or less experienced of the two referees. The umpire’s duties and prerogatives are the same as the crew chief’s with the exceptions noted under the Crew Chief heading in this glossary. Under 3PO, there is a crew chief and two umpires (U1 & U2).|
|Unsportsmanlike Conduct (Behaviour)||UC||To be unsportsmanlike is to act in a manner unbecoming a fair, ethical, honourable individual. It consists of acts of deceit such; disrespect, such as making debasing or critical remarks about or to a referee or an opponent; vulgarity – such as the use of profanity whether or not directed at someone. The penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct by a player on the court, coach or team member/follower is a technical foul.|
|Unsportsmanlike Foul||UF||An illegal contact that includes any of the below criteria, should be called as an Unsportsmanlike Foul.|
• Contact with an opponent and not legitimately attempting to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules. (C1)
• Excessive, hard contact caused by a player in an effort to play the ball or an opponent. (C2)
• An unnecessary contact caused by the defensive player in order to stop the progress of the offensive team in transition. This applies until the offensive player begins the act of shooting. (C3)
• An illegal contact caused by the player from behind or laterally on an opponent, who is progressing towards the opponent’s basket and there are no other players between the progressing player, the ball and the basket. This applies until the offensive player begins the act of shooting. (C4)
• Contact by the defensive player on an opponent on the playing court when the game clock shows 2:00 minutes or less in the fourth quarter and in each overtime, when the ball is out-of- bounds for a throw-in and still in the hands of the referee or at the disposal of the player taking the throw-in. (C5)
|Video Operator||VO||The video operators tag the calls of the referees in FIBA competitions. Their main function is to capture data through the referees’ calls, with the support of a computer and other devices, for a subsequent analysis of the images and statistical data of the actions called by the referees.|
|Violation||n/a||A violation is an infraction of the rules.|
Penalty: The ball shall be awarded to the opponents for a throw- in at the place nearest to the infraction, except directly behind the backboard, unless otherwise stated in the rules.
|Warning||WAR||It refers to any situation when the referees determinate that a head coach or player should be warned for an incorrect conduct: normally for inproper behaviour, delay of game, fake.|
|Weak Side (Refereeing)||WSR||Side of the court where the Centre referee is located (in 3PO).|
|Wiping the Basket||n/a||Cancelling the score (normally used in North America)|
|Working Area||WA||Area in which a referee in any given position normally operates.|